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Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP)

by NYSCA Staff Writer | 4/23/2007 10:10:32 AM

ABSTRACT Objective To examine the effects of reduction in dietary sodium intake on cardiovascular events using data from two completed randomised trials, TOHP I and TOHP II. Design Long term follow-up assessed 10-15 years after the original trial. Setting 10 clinic sites in 1987-90 (TOHP I) and nine sites in 1990-5 (TOHP II). Central follow-up conducted by post and phone. Participants Adults aged 30-54 years with prehypertension. Intervention Dietary sodium reduction, including comprehensive education and counselling on reducing intake, for 18 months (TOHP I) or 36-48 months (TOHP II). Main outcome measure Cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularisation, or cardiovascular death). Results 744 participants in TOHP I and 2382 in TOHP II were randomised to a sodium reduction intervention or control. Net sodium reductions in the intervention groups were 44 mmol/24 h and 33 mmol/24 h, respectively. Vital status was obtained for all participants and follow-up information on morbidity was obtained from 2415 (77%), with 200 reporting a cardiovascular event. Risk of a cardiovascular event was 25% lower among those in the intervention group (relative risk 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.99, P=0.04), adjusted for trial, clinic, age, race, and sex, and 30% lower after further adjustment for baseline sodium excretion and weight (0.70, 0.53 to 0.94), with similar results in each trial. In secondary analyses, 67 participants died (0.80, 0.51 to 1.26, P=0.34). Conclusion Sodium reduction, previously shown to lower blood pressure, may also reduce long term risk of cardiovascular events. Nancy R Cook 1*, Jeffrey A Cutler 2, Eva Obarzanek 2, Julie E Buring 1, Kathryn M Rexrode 1, Shiriki K Kumanyika 3, Lawrence J Appel 4, Paul K Whelton 5 1 Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 2 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 3 University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 4 Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 5 Loyola University Health System, Maywood, IL


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